The paper deals with the interpretation of gravity on the principle of the spacetime structure falling into mass particles.

# GRAVITY DUE TO SPACE FLOW

## THE SPACETIME PHENOMENA part two

by F.Stefanko

#### 2 nd Revision

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The paper has been published within the work The Spacetime Phenomena, and proceeds with the paper The Spacetime Phenomena Part one, bringing new concept of gravity, based on idea of the spacetime structure of a varying density and frequency.

In the paper the gravity is explained by means of a space flow falling into a mass, and on the idea of the gravitational acceleration identical with the acceleration of the spaceflow speed. This explanation of the gravitational phenomenon is in conformity with the Principle of equivalency, and besides it brings the answer on a question about the essence of a gravitational and inertial mass :
The mass, defined by means of the flow of the space is a physical quantity complying with both inertial and gravitational properties of the mass.

Detecting from any point of a gravitational field, the spacetime structure in this point flows into a mass at a constant speed. However, detecting it from one chosen orbit, the spacetime structure is accelerated, respecting the two principal conditions:
• the space flow must stay constant (proportional to a quantity of a mass into which it flows)
• the space density is increased more quickly than the time density, along with decreasing distance from the centre of gravity.
Flowing into a mass, the spacetime structure creates its own space geometry, influenced by relativistic character of its thickening. The equations only defining the gravitational field above the surface of the cosmic object are published in this paper. These equations are in compliance with the acknowledged contemporary theories as long as in the respective theory the change mentioned of the space and time densities along with radius has been implemented.
Briefly, the spaceflow theory brings the following new knowledge :
• The imagination of the variable space and time densities as mentioned.
• Gravitational field is defined
• by the frame intrinsic space flow speed (measured inside orbital reference frame the space flow is just passing through), proportional to the cube root of the mass of the gravitational object, designated as vm/x, which is identical with the escaping speed from the gravitational field.
• by the frame intrinsic radius, proportional to the cube root of the mass of the gravitational object, designated as rx. Observed from a chosen orbital reference frame, the frame intrinsic radius is measured as the common radius (rlmx), as we know and use it in our imagination of the space of the constant space density.
• The ratio Tg = rx / vm/x = 570,48 seconds may be considered to be constant in relatively weak gravitational fields (like at planets). In stronger gravitational field it is influenced by relativistic relationships.
• The acceleration of the free object in general depends not only on radius, but also on its free fall and orbital speed. The maximum acceleration of the object in pure free fall (without orbital speed) is reached at the zero speed (in the culminating point). With the increasing speed the acceleration is decreased, reaches zero when the escaping speed is reached, and becomes positive (acting in direction out of the gravitational field) in case if the object due to outer force overcomes the escaping free fall speed.

Publishing date : March 17th 2001
1st Revision : February 15th 2003
2nd Revision : February 14th 2006
The 2nd Revision offers more profound look into a common free motion, as well as it corrects some errors in the 1st Revision on this subject.
Author

• Thus the frame intrinsic speed of the free object at zero orbital speed
• moving into centre of gravity at the frame intrinsic speed lower than the escaping speed,
is accelerated with decreasing radius and at the zero radius (if possible to reach it) the object reaches the frame intrinsic speed equalling to escaping speed.
• moving into centre of gravity at the frame intrinsic speed matching the escaping speed,
stays moving at the same frame intrinsic speed.
• moving into centre of gravity at frame intrinsic speed exceeding the escaping speed,
is slowed down with decreasing radius and at zero radius (if possible to reach it) reaches the escaping speed.
• moving out of the centre of gravity at the frame intrinsic speed lower than the escaping speed,
is slowed down until it reaches the culminating point.
• moving out of the centre of gravity at the frame intrinsic speed matching the escaping speed,
stays moving at the same frame intrinsic speed.
• moving out of the centre of gravity at the frame intrinsic speed exceeding the escaping speed,
becomes accelerated with the increasing radius.
• For many reasons (like it is the comparison of kinetic and potential energy) it is important to express the speed of the object in time units of the chosen reference frame, and the length units of the reference frame which is the object just passing through (frame intrinsic length units). Such speed, designated as Zct speed (Zct - Zone of contemporary frames) is in general Sqrt(rx / rlmx) times lower (higher) than the frame intrinsic speed mentioned. It appears to be the closest to the classical understanding of the free fall speed in gravitational field.
• For the reason of the today's human imagination, enabling also to define the method 'how to measure the world', the Zcr reference frames were defined (Zcr - zone of the constant ratio of space to time density), giving posibility to express physical quantities in time and length units of a chosen reference frame. The speed expressed in such reference frames is in general Sqrt(rlmx / rx) times higher (lower) than the frame intrinsic speed mentioned.
• The motion in a direction of the gravitational acceleration as described above, must be understood as motion in line geometry. The orbital motion however is a typical phenomenon of the spherical geometry. In the paper the different time flow of the orbital motion is found with respect to the time flow of the vertical motion. Respecting this fact, the equations of the common motion in gravitational field have been derived and verified by calculation of the Earth globe motion in the solar system. The equations show that the certain shift of the culminating points of the orbiting objects appears to be the general attribute of the common motion in a gravitational field. The perihelion advance of the planet Mercury was presented as the phenomenon confirming the theory of general relativity.
• The speed of light in gravitational field appears to be :
• Zct speed : approximatelly constant, equalling to its value on Earth surface, except of the gravitational fields of extremly great or extremly small size,
• Frame intrinsic speed : inversely proportional to the square root of space density,
• Zcr speed : inversely proportional to the space density.
• The spaceflow theory of gravity brings very optimistic opinion for travelling out of a solar system. Since the time density decreases proportionally with the square root of the distance from the Sun (in direction of space flow speed), the galilean projection of a traveller speed from this interstelar space into our space (the speed in our units) is increased proportionally with the square root of the distance from the Sun in interval to approx. one half of the distance between the stars.
• Comparing the spaceflow theory and the general theory of relativity, we can tell:
• Both theories are respecting the Principle of equivalency.
• Instead of the spacetime curvature in general relativity, the changes of the space and time density have been derived in spaceflow theory, causing the relativity effects.
• In spaceflow theory different change of the time flow is derived, belonging to the respective change of length, than it is assumed in theory of general relativity.
• The spaceflow theory is not based on the constancy of the speed of light. The derived equations show, that the speed of light (except of extreme cases) stays constant only in contemporary (Zct) frame. The general relativity is based on Postulate of the frame intrinsic speed of light constancy.
• The two principal experiments confirming the theory of general relativity, the bending of the light rays, and, the shift of the culminating points of the free objects, in gravitational field, are confirmed by the spaceflow theory as well.

The work Gravity and Mass Distribution inside Gravitational Objects (as a Part three of the work The Spacetime Phenomena) has been published by now. The presented results are unexpected, amazing and shocking, invoking the phenomena from science fiction story.

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